NPS first started to appear on the drug market in Kazakhstan a decade ago. The most recent survey on drug use among
the general population was conducted almost 20 years ago. Even though NPS have been in the country for the last 10 years,
no epidemiological research has been conducted among the general population or among PWUD to evaluate the scale of NPS use among these groups.
This report provides a general overview of drug use and trafficking (including NPS) in Kazakhstan, as well as of the risks and consequences related to NPS use. It also reviews responses to the consumption of NPS and the needs of NPS users (regarding services that should be developed) in the area of harm reduction and treatment of NPS users. Finally, the document provides recommendations for decision makers and specialists in the field on how to improve responses to emerging NPS challenges.