New psychoactive substances (NPS) started to appear on the Lithuanian drug market in 2005. However, they have gained momentum only in the last few years. For comparison, in 2012 there were 62 cases of confiscation of NPS, while in 2016 there were 433, and in 2017, 441. The most commonly used NPS by people who have drug use experience in Lithuania are synthetic opioids and cannabinoids, whereas young people who use drugs occasionally tend to use synthetic cathinones, as well as dissociative hallucinogen NPS and classic hallucinogen NPS.
This report provides a general overview of drug use (including NPS) in Lithuania, as well as of the risks and consequences related to NPS use. It also reviews responses to the consumption of NPS and the needs of NPS users (regarding services that should be developed) in the area of harm reduction and treatment for NPS users. Finally, the document provides recommendations for decision makers and specialists in the field on how to improve responses to emerging NPS challenges.