In Romania, penalties are linked to the type of drug – ‘risk’ or ‘high risk’, and there are separate concepts of user and addict, according to diagnosis. Drug consumption is forbidden, but no punishment is specified. In the case of possession for personal use of ‘risk’ drugs, the court can impose a fine or a prison sentence of three months to two years, while possession of ‘high-risk’ drugs attracts a prison sentence of six months to three years. All actions related to the production and sale of ‘risk’ drugs are punishable by two to seven years’ imprisonment, and 5-12 years for ‘high-risk’ drugs. [1] According to the Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics SPACE I there are 23050[2] inmates in Romanian prisons, 1125 of them for drug-law offences. HIV prevalence in prison is 2,62%.[3] As for the drug use responses in prison there ART, OST and NSP services, although in 2016 it (NSP) did not register any clients.[4] The average amount spent per day for the detention of one inmate in Romanian prisons is 27,2 Eur/per day[5], 9928 Eur/per inmate/per year.

The estimate number of people who inject drugs is around 20288[6]. HIV prevalence among PWID is 28,9%[7]. The cost[8] of NSP services is 321 eur/per person/per year, out of this amount, 124 Eur represents staff  costs, transportation and indirect costs, while the rest 197 Eur includes all the harm reduction commodities: syringes, alcohol pads, condoms, containers, medical supplies and medicines for wound care, etc. Naloxone is not available. The cost of OST services is 1089 Eur/per person/per year, out of this amount, 782 Eur covers staff costs and indirect costs while the rest  307 Eur covers methadone, urine tests, syphilis, HIV/HBV/HCV tests, TB screening and vaccination A+B Hepatitis. Unemployment benefits amounts to minimum 50 EUR per day, 600 Eur/per client/per year).[9] So, if the person would need OST, NSP and unemployment benefit, it would cost for the state around 2010 Eur/per person/per year. The health and social services costs are 5 times smaller than incarceration costs.


[3] Data provided by National Anti-Drug Agency
[6] Data provided by National Anti-Drug Agency
[8] The costs of OST and NSP services were provided by national partners and service providers