Lithuania

According to the Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics for 2018[1], Lithuania has one of the highest prison populations among Europe countries, after Russian Federation, Georgia and Azerbaijan.  There are 234,9 inmates per 100,000 inhabitants. In January 2018, there was approximately 6 599 inmates in Lithuania prisons[2]. Approximately 12% of the prisoner’s population serve their sentence for the drug law offences (796 prisoners in 2018)[3]. The average imprisonment term imposed by the courts for the drug law offences is 7 years, 9 months and 6 days, but the actual imprisonment term (in average) is 3 years, 0 months and 29 days[4]. HIV prevalence in Lithuania prisons is around 4,5%[5]. Speaking about drug use responses in prison, it should be mentioned, that ART exists[6], NSP doesn’t exist and OST starting from 2018 is available, but with limitations and barriers: only those inmates, who were on OST programme in freedom – can continue it in the prison settings. Those, who would like to start OST programs in prisons – are not able to get such a service. As well, health specialist can decide to terminate treatment if he/she thinks that treatment is not effective, if the inmate used mental of physical violence against prison staff, if person refused to make test for narcotic or psychotropic substances, etc.[7] According the SPACE I 2018 survey, the average amount spent per day for the detention of one inmate in Lithuania prisons is 23,31 Eur/per day, which is 8 508,15 Eur./ per year/ per inmate.

In 2017 a multi-method estimation of high-risk drug use prevalence was made in Lithuania, which estimated, that there is approximately 4 854–8 652 high risk opiate users[8]. HIV prevalence among PWID is 4,7%[9]. In 2015, the costs of NSP services were ~150,02 Eur/ per person/ per year and OST – 1 391 Eur./ per person/ per year (including case management costs).[10] Without case management, OST would cost 324,48 Eur./ per person/ per year. Unemployment benefit is possible only for 9 months, of the minimum sum of 129,15 Eur./ per person/ per month (which is 1 162,35 Eur/ per person/ per 9 months)[11].

So if the person would need OST, NSP and unemployment benefit, it would cost for the state around 2 703,37 Eur./ per person/ per year.

The health and social services costs are 3 times less than incarceration costs.

[1] Prisons and Prisoners in Europe 2018: Key Findings of the SPACE I report Marcelo F. Aebi and Mélanie M. Tiago http://wp.unil.ch/space/files/2019/04/Key-Findings_190401.pdf
[2] Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics – SPACE 2018 http://wp.unil.ch/space/files/2019/04/FinalReportSPACEI2018_190402.pdf
[3] Prison Department under the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Lithuania, data from 2018 http://www.kaldep.lt/lt/kalejimu-departamentas/administracine_informacija/ataskaitos/metines.html
[4] Prison Department under the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Lithuania, data from 2018 http://www.kaldep.lt/lt/kalejimu-departamentas/administracine_informacija/ataskaitos/metines.html
[5] http://aidsinfo.unaids.org
[6] Order on the diagnostic and treatment of human immunodeficient virus, compensated from budgetary funds of the compulsory health fund: https://e-seimas.lrs.lt/portal/legalAct/lt/TAD/TAIS.371839/vigPmslDSD
[7] Order on the description of the procedure for the opioid substitution treatment in the prisons: https://e-seimas.lrs.lt/portal/legalAct/lt/TAD/8945170248bf11e89197e1115e5dbece?jfwid=qjs00c7g2+Yes*+(the+regulations+on+OST+were+prepared+this+year+with+lots+of+barriers+to+get+or+to+%22loose%22+OST)
[8] Thanki, D., Mravčík, V., Běláčková, V., Mačiulytė, D., Zábranský, T., Širvinskienė, A., Subata, E., Lorenzo-Ortega, R. (2018 m.). A multi-method estimation of high-risk drug use prevalence and coverage of needle and syringe programs and opioid substitution treatment in Lithuania in 2015-2016
[9] http://aidsinfo.unaids.org
[10]http://galiugyventi.lt/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/INTERNETUI-Lietuva-national_report_LT_FINAL.pdf?fbclid=IwAR3OZAVmRJ3mJkwtboQOaQ9UAe_DpQT5v0u5qVl4LmPHYzS_pMOUs_BnlNQ
[11] https://www.sodra.lt/lt/skaiciuokles/nedarbo_ismokos_skaiciuokle