Kazakhstan

In Kazakhstan consumption in public places is criminal offence, punishable with a fine up to 600 € or correctional work in the same amount, or community service up to 120 hours, or arrest up to 45 days. Possession of drugs is also a criminal offence punishable by up to 7 years in prison (more than 1 gram of heroin).[1] According to Prison Studies by January 2019 there were 30001[2] inmates in Kazakh prisons. Information on the number of prisoners  for drug-law offences is unavailable, although the internal affairs agencies detected 25,712 cases of offences that were criminal in nature and involved narcotics in the period from 2015 to 2017 (9,250 in 2015, 8,490 in 2016 and 7,972 in 2017), including 9,616 (3,269 in 2015, 3,406 in 2016 and 2,941 in 2017) serious drug-related crimes.[3] HIV prevalence in prison is 2,7%.[4] As for the drug use responses in prison there is ART,  but NSP and OST services do not exist. The average amount spent per day for the detention of one inmate in Kazakh prisons is 4,26 eur/per day[5], 1554,9 Eur/per inmate/per year.

The estimate number of people who inject drugs is around 120500[6]. HIV prevalence among PWID is 8,5%[7]. The cost[8] of NSP services is approximately 212 eur/per person/per year, OST – 450 EUR/per client/per year. Although OST programs were initiated in 2008 they are still have a status of a pilot project and the coverage of services remain very low. February 2019 less than 1% of people with opioid dependence had access to opioid substitution treatment. This is ten times less than the lowest indicator of 20% recommended by the World Health Organization. In 2018 the program was at risk of full closure[9]. Unemployment benefit in Kazakhstan is approximately 60 Eur/per month (720 Eur/per client/per year).[10]  So, if the person would need OST, NSP and unemployment benefit, it would cost for the state around 1382 Eur/per person/per year.

Update. The average amount spent per day for the detention of one inmate in Kazakh prisons is approximately 5,6 eur/per day[11], 2044 eur/per inmate/per year.

 

[1] https://harmreductioneurasia.org/drug-laws/#Possession
[2]  http://www.prisonstudies.org/country/kazakhstan
[3]UN Economic and Social Council
[4] http://aidsinfo.unaids.org
[5] Data provided by national partners
[6] http://aidsinfo.unaids.org
[7] Ibid.
[8] The costs of OST and NSP services were provided by national partners and service providers
[9] https://harmreductioneurasia.org/pwud-vs-governments-of-estonia-and-kazakhstan-at-the-65-session-of-the-cescr/
[10]https://www.nur.kz/1713462-posobie-po-bezrabotice-v-kazahstane-summa-i-sroki-vyplaty.html
[11] https://www.inform.kz/ru/vo-skol-ko-obhoditsya-soderzhanie-odnogo-osuzhdennogo-v-kazahstane_a3228938?fbclid=IwAR1Gq5Zeux6at_SANwWPBhUT0xUoGJ2G8QA-tIMAb_GmhstAYZmv6sqqEuo